Hofg - Hog


Hofmann, Peter A. "The Making of National Estimates during the Period of the 'Missile Gap.'" Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 3 (Sep. 1986): 336-356.

The author looks at estimates of the Soviet ICBM force made by various NIEs between 1954 and 1963. "The early estimates (1954-55) were fairly cautious and predicted little or no capability.... [But] by 1960 (NIE 11-4-59) a pattern of serious overestimation began to form." Revisions downward began with NIE 11-8-61, issued on 7 June 1961; this trend was reinforced in NIE 11-8/1-61, issued on 21 September 1961. The author associates these revisions with material supplied by Oleg Penkovsky.


Hofschröer, Peter. "Grant's Waterloo Intelligence: Was Dörnberg the Cause of Wellington's Delays?" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 76 (1998): 163-176.  


Hoftijzer, Paul. "'Such Onely as Are Very Honest, Loyall and Active': English Spies in the Low Countries, 1660-1688." In Fabrics and Fabrications: The Myth and Making of William and Mary, eds. Cedric Charles Barfoot and Paul Hoftijzer, 73-95. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1990.


Hogan, David W., Jr. "MacArthur, Stilwell, and Special Operations in the War against Japan." Parameters 25 (Spring 1995): 104-115.

"MacArthur and Stilwell were different men who took different approaches to special operations in their respective theaters. MacArthur's was based on a romantic vision ... of a people's war against brutal oppressors. The SWPA commander turned to special operations early, developed an extensive support organization, and closely supervised its work. Stilwell's approach was more cautious and pragmatic, judging special operations entrepreneurs by their results.... Yet, for all their differences, the two commanders shared some basic traits.... [W]hile both were basically orthodox soldiers who relied on the big battalions, both were ready to turn to special operations to aid conventional forces. Because of their support, special operations forces were able to make significant contributions to victory in the war against Japan."


Hogan, David W., Jr. Raiders or Elite Infantry? The Changing Role of the U.S. Army Rangers from Dieppe to Grenada. Contributions in Military Studies, No. 128. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.

From publisher: This "study examines the nature and purpose of the Rangers over the past fifty years and shows how they have served as scouts, raiders, assault troops, and elite infantry."

[MI/Army/Overviews & SpecOps/To90s]

Hogan, David W., Jr. U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. CMH Publication 70-42. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1992.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Special Operations in the Mediterranean

Darby's Rangers

North Africa

Sicily and Italy

The 1st Special Service Force

The Office of Strategic Services in the Mediterranean

Chapter 3. Special Operations in the European Theater

The 29th Ranger Battalion

The 2d and 5th Ranger Battalions

The Jedburghs and Operational Groups in France

Chapter 4. Special Operations in the Pacific

Guerrillas in the Philippines

The Alamo Scouts

The 6th Ranger Battalion

The Liberation of the Philippines

Chapter 5. Special Operations in the China-Burma-India Theater

OSS Detachment 101


The Final Campaigns in Burma

The Office of Strategic Services in China

The Office of Strategic Services in Southeast Asia

Chapter 6. Conclusion

[WWII (by chapter)]

Hogan, Michael J. A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945-1954. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hedley, IJI&C 12.3, finds that "Hogan has broken new ground by dissecting and describing the domestic drama through which perceived national security imperatives led the United States from isolationism into the building of a national security state.... [Nevertheless,] intelligence scholars are likely to find it ... somewhat disappointing," as the author "seems to marginalize the role and influence of intelligence in the national security state."

For Buse, I&NS 15.3, this work is simultaneously "good" and "weak." It "provides a thorough account of the clash between traditional political assumptions and the emergence of a national security state in the United States.... Yet, the book is not informative on the civic and global consequences of the new state's role.... Hogan employs a narrow definition of institutional development and looks primarily at consequences for the political system."


Hoge, James F., Jr., and Gideon Rose, eds. How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

Bergen, FA 81.2, comments that the essays included here "examine everything from the economic impact of the [9/11] attacks to the troubled recent history of Afghanistan." The volume includes an article by Richard K. Betts about the U.S. intelligence community.


Hoge, James F., Jr., and Gideon Rose, eds. Understanding the War on Terror. Washington, DC: Foreign Affairs, 2005.


Hoge, Warren. "Parliamentary Panel Faults British Government on Iraq but Clears It of Falsifying Intelligence." New York Times, 12 Sep. 2003. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Parliament's Intelligence and Security Committee on 11 September 2003 released a report that "cleared Prime Minister Tony Blair's government of falsifying intelligence findings but questioned its attention-getting claim that Iraq could deploy unconventional weapons in 45 minutes and faulted its portrayal of Iraq as a threat to Britain."


Hoge, Warren. "Britain Closes Web Site With Spies' Names." New York Times, 14 May 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Richard Tomlinson, an "embittered former British spy[,] has used the Internet to make public the names of a large number of secret agents, but officials in London said [on 14 May 1999] that the Web site had been shut down and that no duplicates had surfaced.... The British press today complied with a Foreign Office request not to publish the Web address or the name of the American provider."


Hoge, Warren. "New Spy Accusations Captivate the British Press." New York Times, 20 Sep. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

A BBC documentary broadcast on 19 September 1999 named four more Britons "as suspected Communist agents, bringing the number of people recently accused of having been Cold War informers to eight and prompting calls on the government to clarify why there had been no prosecutions and whether British security had been undermined."


Hogge, Alice. God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. London: HarperCollins, 2005.

Plot and counterplot in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. To Foot, I&NS 21.6 (Dec. 2006), the author provides "that excellent rarity, a work of readable scholarship." The reviewer in Publisher's Weekly (via Amazon.com) sees this as a "sometimes dry and sometimes lively popular religious history."


Hogue, Henry B. Nomination and Confirmation of the FBI Director: Process and Recent History. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2005.


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