Frederick P. Hitz


Hitz, Frederick P. "The Future of American Espionage." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 1-20.

The former CIA Inspector General details a number of performance inadequacies in U.S. intelligence, but concludes that most of the recent difficulties "relate primarily to failures by professionals to meet the high standards of their calling." Suggestions for improvement are offered.


Hitz, Frederick P. The Great Game: The Myth and Reality of Espionage. New York: Knopf, 2004.

Peake, Studies 48.3 (2004) and Intelligencer 14.2 (Winter-Spring 2005), notes that the author "compares issues discussed in ... great works of fiction ... with non-fiction books." To Herrington, Parameters 35.2 (Summer 2005), the author "is well qualified to weave a tapestry of reflections on the craft of espionage by studying the characters of fictional and real spies." Bath, NIPQ 20, (Dec. 2004), finds that "[a]mong its other virtues The Great Game provides a short list of some of the best of spy fiction, as well as a brief review of the highlights of recent real world espionage. Highly recommended."

For McCarry, Washington Post, 25 Apr. 2004, "this sure-footed little book ... is a lucid overview of 20th-century espionage that says more about the great game as it was played by Americans and their allies and adversaries than just about anything else ever published by someone who knew what he was talking about." Schwab, IJI&C 18.4 (Winter 2005-2006), comments that because the book's origin is in a college seminar taught by the author, it "read[s] more like lectures than a cohesive text." Nevertheless, "The Great Game is well argued.... [T]he weakest chapter ... is the penultimate 'Life After Spying.' This portion of the volume is ill-conceived and poorly researched."


Hitz, Frederick P. "The Incredibly Shrinking Spy Machine." Washington Post, 15 Sep. 1998, A21.

The author served as the CIA's first statutory Inspector General 1990-1998.

"Now that the administration has declared war on terrorism..., it is appropriate to concern ourselves with the condition of the front-line troops the United States will need to fight this war, the Clandestine Service (CS) of the Central Intelligence Agency. The picture is not encouraging. The service ... has been shrinking in size and capability since the end of the Cold War.

"The service, along with the rest of the agency, has been on a mandated slimming-down based on attrition since 1990. It has lost more experienced professionals to retirement during this period than it had perhaps envisioned.... The agency ... is not currently replacing front-line professionals on a one-for-one basis.... The real questions that must be answered to put more capable foot soldiers into the war against terrorism relate to spiritual and monetary compensation, motivation and esprit de corps."


Hitz, Frederick P. "The Myths and Current Reality of Espionage." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 4 (Winter 2005-2006): 730-733.

In October 2004, President Bush directed DCI Porter J. Goss "to hire 50 percent more spy-runners and increase the study of hard languages such as Arabic." These instructions represent "a much more realistic and practical approach to fixing the HUMINT problem and the intelligence agencies ... than did the creation of the new position of Director of National Intelligence."


Hitz, Frederick P. "Not Just a Lack of Intelligence, a Lack of Skills." Washington Post, 21 Oct. 2001, B3. []

"[T]he solution to our intelligence problem isn't going to be ... simple. America's new terrorism target puts us in the same difficult and challenging position we were in 55 years ago, when we were trying to penetrate the Soviet Union with insufficient Russian language capabilities and little understanding of the tough totalitarian hide we were trying to pierce." Clark comment: This is a broad-brush but well-thought-out look at some of the issues surrounding the question of how the CIA can get ready to wage its part of the war on terrorism.

[CIA/00s/01; Terrorism/01/WTC]

Hitz, Frederick P. "Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 448-462.

The former CIA statutory Inspector General examines "[s]ome of the reasons for the inconsistency in CIA's responses to drug trafficking allegations or information concerning Contra-related individuals in the 1980s."


Hitz, Frederick P. "Unleasing the Rogue Elephant: September 11 and Letting the CIA Be the CIA." Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 25, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 765-780.

The author examines potential modifications to four existing constraints on the CIA and the Intelligence Community in pursuing the terrorist target: The use of "dirty assets"; domestic law enforcement powers; assassination; and use of journalists, clerics, and academics. His focus is on "balance": The "need to gather better intelligence about threats posed ... by transnational terrorist groups must be weighed against the constraints imposed by current United States law and practice, the U.S. Constitution, and our status as a constitutional democracy."

[CIA/00s/Gen; Overviews/Legal/Harvard2]

Hitz, Frederick P. Why Spy? Espionage in an Age of Uncertainty. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2008.

A Publishers Weekly (Apr. 2008) reviewer calls the former CIA inspector general's book "an entertaining primer on espionage: why it worked against the U.S.S.R. but flopped against terrorists, and what America can do about it." This "short, engaging book ... gives readers plenty to think about." Peake, Studies 52.3 (Sep. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.2 (Fall 2008), concludes that this book "is very worthwhile reading." Hitz misses when he suggest that analysts lack access to the Internet, but otherwise he "provides some very practical guidance for improving intelligence performance and for understanding the intelligence profession."


Hitz, Frederick P., and Brian J. Weiss. "Helping the CIA and FBI Connect the Dots in the War on Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 1-41.

"For cooperation to succeed,... both law enforcement and intelligence agencies must become more open and more flexible, and understand that, in an age of abundant information, their value is not the information they hold, but their analysis and use of that information.... [T]he U.S. needs to organize itself, not against a specific threat, but on a reasonable division of labor."

[CIA/00s/04/Gen; FBI/04; Terrorism/04/War]

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