Michael Herman

A - Z

(Minus "Intelligence"-Titled Items)


Herman, Michael. "Assessment Machinery: British and American Models." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1995): 13-33.

British "assessments" and American "estimates" are the same beast. Herman identifies two basic models for production of community assessments. One model emphasizes "interdepartmental arrangements that enable departments to cooperate collegially" (emphasis in original). The paradigm here is the British JIC. The second model utilizes "forms of central intelligence that supplement or supplant the departmental system" (emphasis in original). In the United States, this form is represented by the DCI and the CIA's Intelligence Directorate. Nonetheless, "both national systems have elements of both collegiality and centralism."

[Analysis/Estimative; UK/Overviews][c]

Herman, Michael. British Intelligence Towards the Millennium: Issues and Opportunities. London Defence Studies No. 38. London: Brassey's for the Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, University of London, 1997.

According to Wark, I&NS 12.4, this 73-page pamphlet is "a condensed and valuable discussion" of the issues Herman raised in Intelligence Power in Peace and War. Herman's prescriptions for change in British intelligence "have a down-to-earth quality, a pragmatism sometimes missing in the more futuristic speculation on intelligence." Herman would like to see the UK direct a greater proportion of intelligence resources to all-source analysis, and he favors a greater degree of management centralization.

[UK/Overviews & PostCW]

Herman, Michael. "Counter-Terrorism, Information Technology and Intelligence Change." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 40-58.

"Counter-terrorism appears to put a special emphasis on accessing and relating different kinds of data residing in different organisations. Developing IT 'systems of systems' to provide interoperability, integration and interdependence between these separate databases may be the key to greater overall effectiveness." In addition, a "managerial/human component of developing an IT 'system of systems'" will be needed.

[Overviews/Gen/00s & I&NS]

Herman, Michael. "Diplomacy and Intelligence." Diplomacy & Statecraft 9, no. 2 (Jul. 1998): 1-22.


Herman, Michael. "Ethics and Intelligence after September 2001." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 342-358.

"Intelligence has to fit into the ethics of an increasingly co-operative system of states, perhaps with bigger changes in thinking than have previously seemed possible."


Herman, Michael.

1. "Governmental Intelligence: Its Evolution and Role." Journal of Economic and Social Intelligence 2, no. 2 (1992): 91-113.

2. "The Development of National Intelligence." Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 12, no. 3 (1993): 3-4.

Excerpts from above article. With the Cold War, "[c]landestine collection became established as a substantial peacetime activity," and there was a "a trend toward central intelligence organizations." The influence of intelligence "is still greatest when assessing force and threats of force."

[Overviews/U.S./90s; WhatIsIntel?][c]

Herman, Michael - "Intelligence"-Titled Items

Herman, Michael. "Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies." In Agents for Change: Intelligence Services in the 21st Century, ed. Harold Shukman, 287-311. London: St. Ermin's, 2000.


Herman, Michael. "Sharing Secrets." The World Today, Dec. 2001, 9-11.


Herman, Michael. "What Difference Did It Make?" Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): 886-901.

"The most important Cold War judgments for each side were of the balance of offence and defence in the opponent's politico-strategic aims, and how this might be changing; and both sides may have got this balance wrong."


Herman, Michael. "Where Hath Our Intelligence Been? The Revolution in Military Affairs." RUSI Journal, Dec. 1998, 62-68.

"[T]he collection and exploitation of textual information of all kinds should have some place in the [Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA)] concept, and in the national investments influenced by it. RMA needs balanced coverage of the enemy.... [There is also a] need for caution about RMA as information dominance and perfect knowledge. Technology promises miracles of [intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance] collection, processing and presentation, but still at the two-dimensional level dictated by objects."



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