Gas - Gef


Gasiorowski, Mark J.

1. "The 1953 Coup D'Etat in Iran." International Journal of Middle East Studies 19, no. 3 (1987): 261-286.

2. and Malcolm Byrne, eds. Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2004.

Brown, FA 83.6 (Nov.-Dec. 2004), finds that this work contains "seven polished studies that speak to each other." Although "[t]here are no surprises here," the book is "richly detailed and tightly reasoned." See Gasiorowski's chapter, "Why Did Mosaddeq Fall?" in this volume, pp. 262-280.


Gasser, William R. "Aerial Photography for Agriculture." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 4 (Fall 1967): 31-36.

This article looks at the development of overhead reconnaissance techniques to produce crop estimates for Communist countries.


Gates, Robert M.

Gathen, Joachim von zur. "Zimmermann Telegram: The Original Draft." Cryptologia 31, no. 1 (Jan. 2007): 2-37.

"The orignal Zimmermann telegram ... contains, in addition to the text..., instructions to forward it to Mexico, and minor [wording] variations ... and in punctuation.... [I]n addition, the draft provides valuable information about transmission and encryption."


Gati, Charles. Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt. Cold War International History Project. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006. 2008. [pb]

Goulden, Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007) and Washington Times, 26 Nov. 2006, notes that the author "delves deeply in the politics of the revolt, both in terms of tangled internal politics, and Budapest's relations with Moscow." Gati "sorely faults RFE, but also notes that policy guidance, such as it was, was confused." For Corke, I&NS 27.2 (Apr. 2009), this is "an excellent book. It is eminently readable, beautifully written, and compelling in both form and substance.... [I]t provides one of the best studies available on the events that occurred in Hungary."

[GenPostwar/50s/Gen; OtherCountries/Hungary]

Gauché, Henri-Maurice. Le deuxième bureau au travail, 1935-1940. Paris: Dumont, 1955.

Alexander, I&NS 6.2/293, states that "nothing has yet superseded Gauché as the benchmark for the pre-1940 history of military intelligence in France."


Gault, Guy. The Yield of the Years: A Story of Adventure Afloat and Ashore. London: Hutchinson, 1940.

Gault was British Naval Attaché in the period prior to America's entry into World War I and continuing until he returned to the UK in 1918.


Gavin, Francis J. "Politics, Power, and U.S. Policy in Iran, 1950-1953." Journal of Cold War Studies 1, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 56-89. []

"What appeared to be a more aggressive stance [toward Iran] by the Eisenhower administration was in actuality a continuation of a policy initiated by the late Truman administration.... [T]he August 1953 coup was ... an outgrowth of decisions and policies made by the Truman administration largely as a result of a truly remarkable U.S. military buildup that really began to come on line in mid-1952."

[Following from]

Lawson comments that this "essay succeeds in demonstrating that there was no 'sharp break between the Truman and Eisenhower administrations' with regard to Iran [footnote omitted]. But it fails to make a convincing case that the structural explanation accounts for the constancy of US policy better than some sort of domestic politics explanation does."

For Kuniholm, "Gavin is right to stress continuities. But he does not adequately address the mindsets of key figures in the new administration who were more predisposed than Truman to act and who may well have been as much influenced by issues other than the balance of power."

In a follow-on comment, Gavin reiterates that "the shifting global military balance" was a key variable in the Truman administration's more aggressive attitude from 1952.


Gay, Dick. "Tony This and Tony That." CIRA Newsletter 28, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 30-35.

"Tony Poe [Anthony Alexander Poshepny] was a CIA special operations paramilitary (PM) expert dispatched on covert operations across Asia from the 1950s to 1970s."

See Stephen Magagnini, "An Inside Look at a CIA Secret War," Capitol Hill Blue, 31 Aug. 2000 [], where Tony Poe talks (minimally) about the war in Laos.


Gay, James Thomas. "The Alger Hiss Spy Case." American History (Jun. 1998). []

The author presents a synopsis of events in the Hiss spy case. He concludes: "[W]hile the preponderance of evidence" weighs "heavily against Hiss, his unrelenting insistence of innocence will keep the door of doubt ever so slightly ajar."


Gayn, Mark, and John Caldwell. American Agent. New York: Holt, 1947.

Constantinides: Gayn "supplies the general background" to Caldwell's story of his Office of War Information (OWI) work in China in World War II. Although Gayn writes of Caldwell's involvement in intelligence activities, "Caldwell tells us nothing of these secret duties. What little he says of the intelligence world is from the viewpoint of an observer, or a coopted official at the very most, and he imparts nothing of significance to the intelligence historian."


Gazit, Shlomo.

The author was head of Israeli military intelligence (A'man), 1974- 1978.

1. "Estimates and Fortune-Telling in Intelligence Work." International Security 4, no. 4 (Spring 1980): 36-56.

2. "Intelligence Estimates and the Decision-Maker." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1988): 261-287.

Includes an Appendix, "Operation Peace for Galilee" (pp. 282-287), which deals with three decisions made in the Israeli war in Lebanon.

[Analysis/Estimates; Israel/Overviews]

Gazit, Shlomo. "Intelligence and the Peace Process in Israel." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 3 (Jul. 1997): 35-66.

Addresses the past, present, and future role of Israeli intelligence in the peace process in three phases: (1) the period prior to the negotiations process, (2) activities in support of the negotiations process, and (3) tasks after an agreement is reached.


Gebhardt, James F.

1. Soviet Naval Special Purpose Forces in World War II. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, Soviet Army Studies Office, 1989.

2."Soviet Naval Special Purpose Forces: Origins and Operations in the Second World War." Journal of Soviet Military Studies 2, no. 4 (1989): 536-578.

This article describes the combat actions of Soviet naval special purpose forces "against the Germans in the Far North from 1941-44, and against the Japanese in Northern Korea in August 1945."


Gebhardt, James F. Soviet Special Purpose Forces: An Annotated Bibliography. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, Soviet Army Studies Office, May 1990. [Gibish]

[MI/SpecOps/Ref; Russia/RefMats]

Gedye, Robin [Telegraph (London)].

Gehlen, Reinhard. Tr., David Irving. The Service: The Memoirs of Reinhard Gehlen. New York: World Publishing, 1972. New York: Popular Library, 1972. [pb]

Clark comment: After a 20-page stage-setting introduction, the next 80+ pages are concerned with World War II. The middle third of the book covers the 1946-1954 period of the "Gehlen organization," which operated under CIA control from 1949 until it was regularized as the Bundesnackrichtendienst (BND) by transfer to the German Federal Republic. The concluding substantive third covers the period from 1954 to Gehlen's retirement in 1968. A final three chapters at the end of the book deal with the future of the world and can be ignored. It would be a good idea to read Gehlen's Memoirs in conjunction with Höhne and Zolling's The General Was a Spy (1972).

Pforzheimer notes that, despite many of the self-serving attributes of such personal recollections, Gehlen's memoirs contain "much of value to the discriminating reader." Petersen labels the book "[a]n incomplete account." Constantinides mentions the disappointment of most reviewers in the book.

A seemingly knowledgeable reviewer for Studies 16.3 (Fall 1972) finds that this memoir "reads easily... The section on Foreign Armies East is perhaps the best part of the book, although it is of interest primarily to military historians." Gehlen mentions by name only well-known figures, otherwise using an alias or similar device; and he "discloses nothing which should not be disclosed."


Gehrke, Robert. "Key Spy Agency Expands to Utah." Salt Lake Tribune, 2 Feb. 2006. []

NSA has confirmed that it will be "adding a cadre of translators in Utah.... The move to Utah is part of a trend within the NSA to move many functions out of its headquarters.... [S]ome NSA counterterrorism operations have moved to Georgia; several thousand NSA jobs are being relocated to a multimillion-dollar facility in San Antonio, according to the San Antonio Express-News; The Denver Post reported some unspecified functions would be moving to the Denver area; and the NSA representative indicated some duties in Hawaii have been expanded."


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