Erwin, Marshall Curtis. Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 10 Apr. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33715.pdf.
"Senior U.S. intelligence community officials have conceded that the line separating Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and DOD intelligence activities has blurred, making it more difficult to distinguish between the traditional secret intelligence missions carried out by each."
[CA/10s/13; MI/10s/13; Oversight/10s; Overviews/Legal/Military]
Erwin, Marshall Curtis. "Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Apr. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R40698.pdf.
"'Gang of Four' intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities,... that the intelligence community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking Members of the two congressional intelligence committees. Gang of Four notifications are not based in statute but have constituted a practice generally accepted by the leadership of the intelligence committees and that is employed when the intelligence community believes a particular intelligence activity to be of such sensitivity that a restricted notification is warranted in order to reduce the risk of disclosure, inadvertent or otherwise."
Erwin, Marshall Curtis. Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 25 Mar. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R40240.pdf.
"The challenge for the 113th Congress will be to help shape intelligence priorities while the intelligence community shifts from a decade of growth to a time of shrinking budgets. Reforms since 9/11 have attempted to create a more collaborative, integrated community. Reflecting that reality, intelligence priorities, and corresponding budget cuts, will be spread across six Cabinet departments and two independent agencies."
Erwin, Marshall Curtis. Intelligence Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 23 Apr. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.
"Members will likely [be] confronted by a new set of intelligence challenges resulting from budgetary realities and from second-order effects stemming from post-9/11 changes. These include:" Consolidation and redundancy, information security and management, and intelligence support to counterterrorism and operations.
Erwin, Marshall Curtis. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Apr. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R41284.pdf.
"ISR issues will continue to be an area of concern for the 113th Congress, especially in light of the lack of a long-term investment strategy and the pending impact of sequestration.... [DNI] James Clapper [has] indicated that sequestration would delay major systems acquisition and require older reconnaissance systems to be decommissioned. The DNI and the Presidents FY2014 budget request indicated an effort to protect the intelligence community workforce, suggesting that hard choices in response to budget cuts will focus on ISR systems and other expensive collection platforms."
Erwin, Marshall Curtis. Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 10 Apr. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R40691.pdf.
"This report describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examines the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight."
Erwin, Marshall Curtis, and Amy Belasco. Intelligence Spending and Appropriations: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 5 Sep. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R42061.pdf.
"In the new era of fiscal austerity, the intelligence community will almost certainly face its share of budget cuts and it is likely that Members of Congress will review intelligence programs to ensure they are both effective and affordable."
Return to Ern-Eu