Dow - Drac


Downes, Donald. The Scarlet Thread: Adventures in Wartime Espionage. London: Derek Vershoyle, 1953. New York: British Book Centre, 1953.

Constantinides: This is the "personal reminiscence of an American who ... served in British intelligence before Pearl Harbor." During the war, Downes served with the OSS in North Africa and Italy, and was connected with an ill-fated OSS intelligence-collection operation in Spain. "Downes's account is partisan and cannot be relied on completely for accuracy."


Downie, James Alan. "Secret Service Payments to Daniel Defoe, 1710-1714." Review of English Studies 30 (1979): 437-441.


Downing, Alan R. [SMS/USAF] "Air Force Intelligence Training: Vector to the 21st Century." Military Intelligence 21, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1995): 36-40.


[Downing, Jack.] "Speech by Former DDO Jack Downing." CIRA Newsletter 24, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 3-8.

Remarks at Central Intelligence Retirees' Association luncheon on 4 October 1999 at Ft. Myer, VA. Includes question-and-answer session.


Downing, Taylor. Spies in the Sky: The Secret Battle for Aerial Intelligence During World War II. London: Little, Brown, 2011.

According to Peake, Studies 56.4 (Dec. 2012) and Intelligencer 19.3 (Winter-Spring 2013), the author tells the story of "the Central Interpretation Unit (CIU) at RAF Medmenham.... Photography taken by RAF reconnaissance units was interpreted by a staff recruited from universities and the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) and trained as PIs.... By 1943, American and allied PIs were part of the CIU.... Spies in the Sky is an inspiring chronicle of the vital contribution of PIs to the major operations in WW II and to the postwar profession for which they paved the way."


Downs, Edward C.

The following works recount the exploits of C. Lorain Ruggles, 20th Ohio.

1. Four Years a Scout and Spy: "General Bunker," One of Lieut. General Grant's Most Daring and Successful Scouts. Zanesville, OH: H. Dunne, 1866.

2. The Great American Scout and Spy, "General Bunker." New York: Olmstead, 1870.


Downs, Jim.

1. "Lessons From the Failure of the OSS/SOE DAWES Mission." Journal of Intelligence History 2, no. 1 (Summer 2002). [ previous.html]

The Dawes mission was one of a series of OSS teams sent into an area of Czechoslovakia held by Czech partisans in September 1944. After Czech defenses broke down toward the end of October, team members fled the area but were captured, tortured, and killed by the German military.

2. World War II: OSS Tragedy in Slovakia. Oceanside, CA: Liefrinck, 2002.

According to Jonkers, AFIO WIN 48-02 (17 Dec. 2002), this work "tells the story of an OSS unit supporting local partisans, some two dozen American and British agents, and two women, whose mission in Slovakia ran afoul of German counterintelligence in 1944. Pursued by an 'Abwehr' unit through rugged terrain in frigid weather, most lost their lives.... The story is set in a complicated mosaic of personalities of all nationalities, in obscure towns and villages, and may be a challenge to follow for some."

[UK/WWII/Services/SOE; WWII/OSS/OtherOps]

Downs, Michael L. [LTCOL/USAF] "Rethinking the Combined Force Air Component: Commander's Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Approach to Counterinsurgency." Air & Space Power Journal 22, no. 3 (Fall 2008). []

From abstract: In Iraq and Afghanistan, the "air component finds itself ill equipped to handle" the "unique and complex intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) requirements" of counterinsurgency operations "since it still adheres to a doctrine of major theater war. The author provides historical context, offers an alternative approach to managing ISR, and recommends changes to doctrine."

Steven Maceda [MAJ/USAF], "Control of Theater Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance for the Ground Commander," Air & Space Power Journal 22, no. 4 (Winter 2008), disagrees with Downs' "proposal to use the close air support request process for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR)." This process "still does not allow the flexibility in execution required by the ground commander.... The combined air operations center (CAOC) must allow decentralized execution of ISR assets -- particularly full-motion-video platforms -- by delegating tactical control of platforms apportioned to Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I) during execution."

[MI/AF/00s & SpecOps/Counterinsurgency]

Doyle, Charles. "Memorandum to Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Probable Cause, Reasonable Suspicion, and Reasonableness Standards in the Context of the Fourth Amendment and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act." Washington, DC: American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 30 Jan. 2006. []

"Probable cause is [a] bit different under FISA. Ordinarily, probable cause speaks to the probability of the existence of a certain fact.... FISA authorizes issuance of a surveillance or search order predicated upon the probability of a possibility; the probability to believe that the foreign target of the order may [italics in original] engage in spying, or the probability to believe that the American target of the order may [italics in original] engage in criminal spying activities. [citations omitted] But it is the predicate not the standard that is changed. The probable cause standard [italics in original] is the same in FISA as in a criminal context: would a prudent individual believe that a fact is probably true. It is the focus that is different. Would a prudent individual believe that spying may occur."


Doyle, Charles. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 8 Sep. 2009. Available at:

From "Summary": "The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (H.R. 3199), P.L. 109-177, and its companion P.L. 109-178, amended the five NSL [national security letter] sections to expressly provide for judicial review of both the NSLs and the confidentiality requirements that attend them. The sections have also been made explicitly judicially enforceable and sanctions recognized for failure to comply with an NSL request or to breach NSL confidentiality requirements with the intent to obstruct justice. The use of the authority has been made subject to greater congressional oversight."

An abridged version of this report, "without the footnotes, appendixes, and most of the citations to authority found in the longer report," is available as National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 27 Dec. 2010), at: .


Doyle, Charles. National Security Letters: Proposals in the 112th Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 30 Jun. 2011. Available at:

"This report reprints the text of the five NSL statutes as they now appear and as they appeared prior to amendment by the USA PATRIOT Act (to which form they would be returned under S. 193)."


Doyle, David W. True Men and Traitors: From the OSS to the CIA. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Jonkers, AFIO WIN 12.2 (25 Mar. 2002), highly recommends this book as "a great starting point for both outsiders and insiders who want to know more about clandestine operations." As the title indicates, the author served with OSS in World War II and, later, with the CIA.... Doyle provides a window on how CIA operated..., including agent recruitment, tradecraft in operations and successes as well as various inevitable snafus.... This is a positive, constructive, interesting book, easy to read, a straightforward account that is a credit to the author."

The reviewer in CIRA Newsletter, Spring 2002, believes that former CIA Africa-hand Doyle provides "real insight into the business of espionage.... [T]he book examines the daily grind and drudgery of the espionage business as well as the great personal satisfaction that comes from winkling out vital information from sometimes unlikely and unlikeable sources." Bath, NIPQ 18.2/3, sees the author introducing the reader "to the problems and perils of agent running in the Third World in the 1960s" and offering "interesting insights into tradecraft." In the "Traitors" part of the book, "there is little new for the student of intelligence."


Dozier, Kimberly A-G (Associated Press).

Dozier, Kimberly H-Z (Associated Press).

Drachman, Edward R., and Alan Shank. Presidents and Foreign Policy: Countdown to Ten Controversial Decisions. Ithaca, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.

Clark comment: The authors offer a case study of one major decision for each president from Truman to Clinton. It is possible to argue that there are better potential cases for each president than the ones selected for study, but those chosen are interestingly fitted into the authors' novel countdown approach. The cases presented are:

1. Truman's decision not to extend diplomatic recognition to the PRC.

2. Eisenhower's decision to oppose the British-French-Israeli Suez invasion.

3. Kennedy's decision to support the Bay of Pigs invasion.

4. Johnson's decision to end the U.S. escalation of the Vietnam War.

5. Nixon's decision to order the Cambodian incursion.

6. Ford's decision to intervene in Angola.

7. Carter's decision to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics.

8. Reagan's decision to bomb Libya.

9. Bush's decision to end the Gulf War.

10. Clinton's decision to use the U.S. military to restore Aristide as Haitian president.

Larson, APSR 92.1, appreciates the authors' efforts to "present more objective criteria" than is normally the case in decision-making evaluation. Their evaluation scheme "seems plausible and reasonable on the face," but "it does not always work well when applied to specific cases." Nevertheless, "the case studies are well researched, concise, and provocative."

[GenPostwar/Issues/Policy; and by case study topic]

Return to D Table of Contents

Return to Alphabetical Table of Contents