Cram - Craz


Cram, Cleveland C.

Cleveland C. Cram died on 8 January 1999 at the age of 81: J.Y. Smith, "CIA Official Cleveland C. Cram: Specialist in Counterintelligence; Conducted Influential Study of Legendary Agency Spymaster," Washington Post, 13 Jan. 1999, B6.

1. Of Moles and Molehunters: A Review of Counterintelligence Literature, 1977-1992, An Intelligence Monograph. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1993. Available as PDF file (1993) at:

Clark comment: Although it remains the object of considerable ire from Angleton supporters, Cram's monograph is a great read for anyone interested in the literature of intelligence. Readers need not take Cram's opinions as the gospel, but they will learn about more things than "merely" Angleton. For an antidote to Cram's view of Angleton, see Hood, Nolen, and Halpern, Myths Surrounding James Angleton (1993).

For the Surveillant 3.4 reviewer, this monograph is an "opinionated, literate, fresh look at some items in the CI literature from an Agency insider." It offers a "terrific, though brief, historical review ... [and is] well worth reading." Bates, NIPQ 10.2, saw things differently: The "title is, at best, misleading because the monograph is really an attack on ... Angleton, blaming him for so many things I can't chronicle them here.... [T]his is not the way to write history."

Robarge, Studies 53.4 (Dec. 2009), calls this "a unique and valuable historiographical survey of counterintelligence publications from the late 1970s to the early 1990s."

2. "Of Moles and Molehunters: Spy Stories." Studies in Intelligence 38, no. 5 (1995): 129-137.

"Editor's note: The following background essay first appeared in a monograph published by the Center for the Study of Intelligence in October 1993." (See above)

[CI/90s; CIA/Angleton][c]

Crane, Robert D. "The Cuban Crisis: A Strategic Analysis of American and Soviet Policy." Orbis 6 (Winter 1963): 528-563.


Crangle, Robert D. "Spying, the CIA, and the New Technologies." Ripon Forum, Feb. 1970, 7-14. [Petersen]


Crary, Catherine S. "The Tory and the Spy: The Double Life of James Rivington." William and Mary Quarterly 16, no. 1 (Jan. 1959): 61-72.


Cratty, Carol. "Former State Department Official Sentenced to Life for Spying for Cuba." CNN, 16 Jul. 2010. []

On 16 July 2010, former State Department official Walter Kendall Myers was sentenced to life in prison for spying for Cuba. His wife and partner in spying, Gwendolyn Steingraber Myers, "received a sentence of six years and nine months, but will get credit for more than a year already served.... Myers' life sentence does not include the possibility of parole."


Cratty, Carol. "3 Suspects in Russian Spy Ring Case Ordered Held." CNN, 2 Jul. 2010. []

According to a court document released at U.S. District Court in Alexandria, VA, on 2 July 2010, "the man known as Michael Zottoli is really a Russian named Mikhail Kutzik" and "the woman known as Patricia Mills is a Russian citizen named Natalia Pereverzeva. Prosecutors said that Zottoli and Mills ... made the admissions" soon after their arrest. Another suspect named Mikhail Semenko "appeared at a separate hearing.... Magistrate Judge Theresa Buchanan ordered that the three continue to be held in jail and cited the government's contention that they are dangers to the community and a flight risk."


Craughwell, Thomas J., with M. William Phelps. Failures of the Presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and War in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds, 2008.

The high production values found in this book are reflected in beautiful and interesting illustrations, many of which are full page. The authors (and the copyright page identifies more than the two listed on the title page) provide 20 chapters dealing with the "failures" of 18 presidents -- Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter get two chapters each. The early chapters (from the Whiskey Rebellion to the Pullman Strike) are the most interesting, informative, and fair minded in the book. The chapters dealing with the most recent events (from the Bay of Pigs to the Iraq War) are the most contentious, with several of the presentations heavily defined by a political viewpoint. None of the chapters focus explicitly on intelligence issues, although there are certainly intelligence overtones to the presentations on the Bay of Pigs, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Watergate, the Iranian Hostage Crisis, Iran-Contra, and the Iraq War.

The book has a handful of egregious errors of fact. For instance, Everett M. Dirksen was from Illinois, not Minnesota (p. 193); in November 1980, there were not 444 Americans being held captive in Iran (p. 245); and a Special National Intelligence Estimate from 1964 clearly was not authored by the Director of National Intelligence (p. 296). However, the book's greatest weakness is the total absence of the trappings of scholarship. Perhaps, the stories read more easily without the intervention of footnotes; but it is impossible to determine from where the authors are drawing their too-frequent errors of substance. For example, the assertion that, "There were more CIA agents in Iran [in 1978-1979] per capita than in any other nation on earth," (p. 238) begs for a reference to justify such an off-the-mark perception.


Craven, John P. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

According to Gaillard, Proceedings 127.4 (Apr. 2001), the author "was chief scientist in the Navy's Special Projects Office from 1958 to 1970.... The Silent War is a must-read for those interested in technology, management, and intelligence-gathering challenges triggered by tense Cold War competition beneath the seas."


Craven, Wesley F., and James L. Cate, eds. The Army Air Forces in World War II. 7 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953-1965.

Petersen: "Some coverage of intelligence and reconnaissance, as well as target selection. See especially volumes I and II."


Crawford, David J. Volunteers: The Betrayal of National Defense Secrets by Air Force Traitors. Washington, DC: GPO, 1988.


Crawford, Don. Pueblo Intrigue: A Journey of Faith. New York: Pyramid, 1969.


Crawford, Neta C. "Just War Theory and the U.S. Counterterror War." Perspectives on Politics 1, no. 1 (Mar. 2003): 5-25.

The author argues that "it is extremely difficult to fight a just counterterror war given the nature of terrorism and the realities of contemporary warfare." She shows, however, that "the [George W.] Bush administration has made an effort to engage in a just counterterror war by meeting the criterion of self-defense and seeking to avoid noncombatant harm. Even so, current U.S. policy and practice in the counterterror war are not just. But any government would have a problem fighting a just counterterror war in the current context; indeed, the utility of just war theory itself is challenged."


Crawford, Steve.

1. SAS at Close Quarters: Great Battles of the SAS. London: Pan Macmillan, 1993. [pb] New ed. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1994.

2. The SAS Encyclopedia: The Definitive Companion to the World's Crack Regiment. London: Simon & Schuster, 1996. London: Lewis International, 1998. Boulder, CO: Paladin, 2000.

Wahla,, comments that this book "covers every aspect of the SAS. From its birth in the deserts of North Africa, through the '50's and '60's, the conflict in Northern Ireland, the Gulf War, and the battles against terrorism and the drug barons, the book gives detail and history that one would have to read dozens of books to find by oneself." [UK/RefMats]

3. SAS Gulf Warriors: The Story Behind "Bravo Two Zero." London: Simon & Schuster, 1995. 1996. [pb]

From publisher: "The 1991 Gulf War ... saw the biggest deployment of SAS soldiers to an operational theatre since World War II. Some of their exploits, notably the ordeal of the patrol code-named 'Bravo Two Zero', have become well known.... Aiming to provide a fuller record of the operations, this book incorporates first-hand accounts,... and also discusses aspects such as the co-operation between the British and American special forces during the campaign, and the strategic role of the SAS."


Crawley, Aiden Merivale. Escape from Germany: A History of R.A.F. Escapes During the War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956.

According to Pforzheimer, Escape from Germany "describes the British escape intelligence organizations (one of which the author headed) in German POW camps." It is a "major work in the literature of evasion and escape." The full text of this official history was published by HMSO in 1985. Constantinides notes that the "focus is on escape from camps, with evasion getting only secondary treatment.... Though interesting, the book fails to tell the full story of the combined effort that went into the planning, preparation, and support for escape and evasion."


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