Craig Covault

Covault, Craig.

1. "Advanced KH-11 Broadens U.S. Recon Capability." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 Jan. 1997, 24-25.

2. "Atlantis Radar Satellite Payload Opens New Reconnaissance Era." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 Dec. 1988, 26-28.

3. "Cooperative Recon Gains Momentum." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 Oct. 1995, 28-29.

Officials from the United States, Russia, Europe, and Japan are discussing the possibility of combining the capabilities of classified reconnaissance spacecraft "for broader international utilization in crisis monitoring and peacekeeping operations."

4. "Eavesdropping Satellite Parked Over Crisis Zone." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 18 May 1998, 30.

5. "Military Space Capabilities Expanding, but Excess Secrecy Limits Progress." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Apr. 1989, 18- 19.

6. "Recon Satellites Lead Allied Intelligence Effort." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 Feb. 1991, 25-26.

U.S. reconnaissance satellite imaging is "the allied forces' primary source of information for bomb damage assessment and attack mission planning" in the Gulf War. The author also reviews the number and kinds of imaging spacecraft involved in this reconnaissance effort.

7. "Secret NRO Recons Eye Iraqi Threat." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 Sep. 2002. []

"[S]ix secret National Reconnaissance Office high-resolution imaging satellites ... are maintaining an almost hourly watch on specific Iraqi facilities. Three Advanced KH-11s with optical and infrared sensors are teamed with three Lacrosse imaging radar spacecraft with night/all-weather capabilities to search for evidence of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons development, along with missile production.

"But some of these spacecraft are growing old, and a critical new KH-11 replacement satellite that was to have been launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif., in December 2001 has now been delayed nearly 1.5 years by problems. It is now not planned to launch any earlier than May 2003."

8. "Titan Explosion Destroys Secret 'Mercury' Sigint." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Aug. 1998, 28.

9. "USAF, NASA Discuss Shuttle Use for Satellite Maintenance." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Dec. 1984, 14-16.


Covault, Craig. "USAF U-2 Satcom Link Employed in Bosnia Operation." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 Feb. 1996, 26.

USAF U-2 reconnaissance aircraft are relaying imaging radar data via satellite link back to Beale Air Force Base for processing. Beale then relays the processed intelligence back to theater commanders.

[MI/Ops; Recon/Planes/90s]

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