Bloch, Gilbert. Tr., C.A. Deavours.

1. "Enigma Before Ultra: Polish Work and the French Contribution." Cryptologia, Jul. 1987: 142-155.

2. "Enigma Before Ultra: The Polish Success and Check." Cryptologia, Oct. 1987: 227-233.

3. "Enigma Avant Ultra/Enigma Before Ultra." Cryptologia, Jul. 1988: 178-184.

Sexton identifies these articles as translations of chapters 3, 4, and 5 of Bloch's privately published Enigma Avant Ultra (1930-1940) (1988).

[OtherCountries/Poland/Enigma; UK/WWII/Ultra]

Bloch, Gilbert. "Polish Reconstitution of the German Military Enigma and the First Decryptments of Its Messages." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001). []

From abstract: "The improved 1930 Militär-Enigma ... involve[d] provisions liable to jeopardize security, which, in combination with documents furnished by Hans-Thilo Schmidt (HE/Asche) to the French, would eventually enable three brilliant Polish mathematicians [Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski, and Jerzy Rózycki] to decipher most of the German Army messages between 1933 and 1938.... Only in March 1939, after the Germans had added two more rotors to the Enigma, did the flow stop. When the British promised the Poles assistance in time of need, it was the beginning of close cooperation between Poland, France, and Great Britain."

[OtherCountries/Poland/Enigma; UK/WWII/Ultra]

Bloch, Jonathan, and Patrick Fitzgerald. British Intelligence and Covert Action: Africa, Middle East, and Europe Since 1945. London: Junction Books, 1983. Dingle, Ireland: Brandon Book Publishers, 1983. [pb]

Block, Alan A. "A Modern Marriage of Convenience: A Collaboration between Organized Crime and U.S. Intelligence." In Organized Crime: A Global Perspective, ed. Robert J. Kelly. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986.

Petersen: "Mafia role in security of New York waterfront."


Block, Lawrence J., and David B. Rivkin, Jr. "The Battle to Control the Conduct of Foreign Intelligence and Covert Operations: The Ultra-Whig Counterrevolution Revisited." Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 12, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 303-355.

[Oversight; Overviews/Legal]

Block, Robert. "U.S. to Expand Domestic Use of Spy Satellites." Wall Street Journal, 15 Aug. 2007, A1. []

A May 2007 decision by DNI Michael McConnell "greatly expanded the range of federal and local authorities who can get access to information" from U.S. spy satellites. A memo to Secretary Michael Chertoff asked DHS "to facilitate access to the spy network on behalf of civilian agencies and law enforcement." DHS chief intelligence officer Charles Allen "will be in charge of the new program."

[DHS/07; DNI/07; FBI/DomSec/00s; Recon/Sats/Arts]

Block, Robert, and Gary Fields. "Is Military Creeping into Domestic Spying and Enforcement?" Wall Street Journal, 9 Mar. 2004, B1. []

The article reports instances of "an expanding military role in domestic affairs."

[MI/00s/Gen; Overviews/Legal/Topics/Military]

Bloechl, T.D. Mission Complete: Tactical Intelligence During the Transition from War to Peace. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1993.

Blood, Jake. The Tet Effect: Intelligence and the Public Perception of War. New York: Routledge, 2005.

From publisher: "This book examines intelligence's role in shaping America's perception of the war and looks closely at the intelligence leadership and decision process in Vietnam.... [T]he conclusion is made that four severe breaches of intelligence etiquette occurred during the period leading up to Tet."


Blood, Michael R. "FBI Director Defends Use of Informants in Mosques." Associated Press, 8 Jun. 2009. []

On 8 June 2009, FBI Director Robert Mueller "defended the agency's use of informants within U.S. mosques, despite complaints from Muslim organizations that worshippers and clerics are being targeted instead of possible terrorists."


Bloom, Bradley. "Information Operations in Support of Special Operations." Military Review 84 (Jan.-Feb. 2004): 45-49.


Bloom, Cecil. "Aaron Aaronsohn: Forgotten Man of History?" Jewish Historical Studies 40 (2005): 177-196.


Bloom, Murray Teigh. "Uncle Sam: Bashful Counterfeiter." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 3 (1988): 345-358.

This article discusses a scheme raised by John Steinbeck and others to counterfeit German money. Donovan raised the same idea with regard to Italy. The idea also came from elsewhere in OSS regarding Japan. The author also discusses Reddick's operation.


Bloomfield, Lincoln P., Jr. "The Legitimacy of Covert Action: Sorting Out the Moral Responsibilities." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 525-537.


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