Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 10 Jan. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R40505.pdf.
"Summary": "The National Intelligence Council (NIC), composed of some 18 senior analysts and national security policy experts, provides the U.S. intelligence community's best judgments on crucial international issues. NIC members are appointed by the Director of National Intelligence and routinely support his office and the National Security Council. Congress occasionally requests that the NIC prepare specific estimates and other analytical products that may be used during consideration of legislation. It is the purpose of this report to describe the statutory provisions that authorize the NIC, provide a brief history of its work, and review its role within the federal government. The report will focus on congressional interaction with the NIC and describe various options for modifying congressional oversight."
Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Intelligence Director and Intelligence Analysis. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 11 Feb. 2005. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RS21948.pdf.
Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Jan. 2001. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL30740.pdf.
Aftergood, Secrecy News, 15 Jun. 2001, comments that this CRS report "break[s] little new analytic ground, but ... offers [a] reliable summar[y] of complex issues in relatively concise and readable form."
Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 28 Dec. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30840.pdf.
From "Summary": "Some argue that the NSC should be broadened to reflect an expanding role of economic, environmental, and demographic issues in national security policymaking.... In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, the George W. Bush Administration established a Homeland Security Council. The Obama Administration has combined the staffs of the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council into a single National Security Staff, while retaining the two positions of National Security Adviser and Homeland Security Adviser. Although the latter has direct access to the President, the incumbent is to report organizationally to the National Security Adviser."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Peacekeeping: Intelligence Requirements. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1994.
Best, Richard A., Jr. Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 24 Sep. 2004. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32500.pdf.
"Proposals for the reorganization of the United States Intelligence Community have repeatedly emerged from commissions and committees created by either the executive or legislative branches. The heretofore limited authority of Directors of Central Intelligence and the great influence of the Departments of State and Defense have inhibited the emergence of major reorganization plans from within the Intelligence Community itself."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Reforming Defense Intelligence. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 22 Jan. 1992.
Best, Richard A., Jr. Securing Americas Borders: The Role of the Intelligence Community. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 7 Dec. 2010. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R41520.pdf.
"In recent decades, and especially after 9/11, the potential for terrorists coming across the border as well as extensive narcotics trafficking have led policymakers to reach beyond law enforcement agencies to seek out information acquired by intelligence sources, including signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and human agents....
"[T]here are a number of concerns about the contribution of intelligence agencies that Congress may choose to review. First, border security missions might detract from traditional intelligence missions.... Secondly, both intelligence and law enforcement agencies might in some situations be gathering information from the same sources.... Thirdly,... observers are concerned that intelligence collection techniques might infringe the civil liberties of U.S. persons.... Finally, others point to the potential that the involvement of intelligence agencies in border security efforts could affect overall U.S.-Canadian and U.S.-Mexican relations."
Best, Richard A., Jr. U.S. Intelligence and India's Nuclear Tests: Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1998.
Best, Richard A., Jr. "What the Intelligence Community Got Right about Iraq." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 3 (Jun. 2008): 289-302.
The U.S. Intelligence Community provided a "bleak description of likely postwar Iraq realities.... [B]ased on the assessments of the Intelligence Community, American policymakers were in a position to know what they were up against in a post-conflict Iraq. In this instance, intelligence analysts earned their pay."
Best, Richard A., Jr., and Alfred Cumming. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 5 Dec. 2007. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RS34270.pdf.
"A consensus now exists that OSINT must be systematically collected and should constitute an essential component of analytical products.... [T]he Intelligence Community [IC] has established the position of Assistant Director of National Intelligence for Open Source and created the National Open Source Center.... [T]he Center is up and running, and providing support ... to OSINT professionals throughout the [IC]. Administrative mechanisms are in place to ensure that there is a comprehensive community-wide open source effort. It appears, however, to some observers that not all agencies have as yet made comprehensive commitments to acquiring and using open source information, nor that the ODNI has taken sufficient steps to ensure that open sources are appropriately exploited."
Best, Richard A., Jr., and Jennifer K. Elsea. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 13 Jan. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL34421.pdf.
"This report provides background on the development of intelligence satellites and identifies the roles various agencies play in their management and use. Issues surrounding the current policy and proposed changes are discussed.... There follows a discussion of legal considerations, including whether satellite reconnaissance might constitute a 'search' within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment; an overview of statutory authorities, as well as restrictions that might apply; and a brief description of executive branch authorities and Department of Defense directives that might apply. The report concludes by discussing policy issues Congress may consider as it deliberates the potential advantages and pitfalls that may be encountered in expanding the role of satellite intelligence for homeland security purposes."
[DHS/11; FBI/DomSec/10; Recon/Sats/Arts/10]
Best, Richard A., Jr., and Andrew Feickert. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 3 Aug. 2009. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22017.pdf; and at: https://opencrs.com/document/RS22017/2009-08-03/.
A judicious look at the issues surrounding the 9/11 Commission's Recommendation 32, which called for responsibility for all covert and clandestine paramilitary activities to be shifted to the Defense Department.
[CIA/00s/Gen; CA/00s; MI/SpecOps/00s]
Best, Richard A., Jr., and Mark M. Lowenthal. The U.S. Intelligence Community and the Counternarcotics Effort. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1992.
Best, Richard A., Jr., and Clyde Mark. Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 31 Jan. 2001.
This is a balanced review of the arguments for and against clemency.
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