Bef - Bem

Begoum, F. M. "Observations on the Double Agent." Studies in Intelligence 6, no. 1 (Winter 1962): 57-72.

"The service and officer considering a double agent possibility must weigh net national advantage thoughtfully, never forgetting that a double agent is, in effect, a condoned channel of communication with the enemy."


Behling, Thomas, and Kenneth McGruther. "Planning Satellite Reconnaissance to Support Military Operations." Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1998-1999, 113-121. American Intelligence Journal 19, nos. 3 & 4 (1999-2000): 13-21.

Given the "design and development lead-times" required for satellites, "by the time the military determines intelligence requirements to support its new doctrine [Joint Vision 2010], it may be too late to influence decisions about the very intelligence support systems upon which the doctrine depends."

[Recon/Imagery & Sats]

Behrendt, Hans-Otto. Rommel's Intelligence in the Desert Campaign, 1941-1943. London: Kimber, 1985.

Sexton refers to this work as a "[l]avishly illustrated memoir of the role of intelligence in Rommel's operations." Behrendt describes "the organization, activities and personalities of Radio Intercept Company 621 and gives examples of the information gleaned from intercepts of British and American communications." According to Hunt, I&NS 2.2, the author served as intelligence officer to Rommel from April 1941 to May 1943. He has produced "a modest and enlightening account of his sevice which is as good an exposition of the practical side of intelligence work in the field as any I know from either side."


Behrens, Carl E. Effects on U-Boat Performance of Intelligence from Decryption of Allied Communications. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Navy, 1954.

Sexton describes this work as a study by the U.S. Navy "of the role of Sigint on German actions and deployments in the Battle of the Atlantic."

[WWII/Atlantic; WWII/Eur/Ger]

Behrstock, Julian. The Eighth Case: Troubled Times at the United Nations. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987.

From publisher: "The author was one of eight Americans at UNESCO whom the U.S. Government in the mid-1950's requested the Director General of UNESCO to dismiss because there was 'reasonable doubt' as to their loyalty to the United States. The Director General ... fired seven who had refused to su[b]mit to a 'loyalty' investigation, but he declined to act in an 'eighth case'. Behrstock's was the 'eighth case.' The book recounts the history of actions taken by the United States regarding the fate of the seven Americans and the 'eighth case.'"


Beichman, Arnold. "Can Counterintelligence Come in from the Cold?" Policy Review 15 (Winter 1981): 93-101. [Petersen]


Beichman, Arnold. "Decrypted Details of Soviet Designs." Washington Times, 24 Aug. 1997, B4.


Beichman, Arnold. "The U.S. Intelligence Establishment and Its Discontents." In To Promote Peace: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Mid-1980s, ed. Dennis L. Bark, 285-298. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1984.


Beinart, Peter. "The Odd Logic of a Spy's Defenders." New York Times, 16 Jan. 1999. []

"It is not surprising that [Pollard] should try to rally American Jews to his aid -- criminals often play the ethnic card when it is all they have left."


Beirne, Francis F. Shout Treason: The Trial of Aaron Burr. New York: Hastings House, 1959. [Petersen]


Beirne, Francis F. The War of 1812. New York: Dutton, 1949.


Beitz, Charles. "Covert Intervention as a Moral Problem." Ethics and International Affairs 3 (1989): 45-60.

[CA/80s; Overviews/Ethics]

Bekrenev, L. K. "Operational Contacts." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 1 (Winter 1965): 63-80.

Soviet doctrine on holding meetings with agents. "Adapted from a Top Secret paper issued by the Soviet Military-Diplomatic Academy in 1960." (p. 63/fn.1)


Belair, Felix, Jr. "President Asserts Secrecy of Soviet Justifies Spying." New York Times, 12 May 1960.

"President Eisenhower said [on 11 May 1960] that the Soviet Union's ability to prepare in secret a massive surprise attack was ample warrant for the United States' 'distasteful but vital' espionage activities. In a carefully worded statement read at his news conference the President said that the Soviet 'fetish of secrecy and concealment' was 'a major cause of international tension and uneasiness.' It was the President's first public comment on the downing of an American U-2 reconnaissance plane over Soviet territory and official Soviet indignation over the incident."


Belamendia, Zigor Ibernia, and Antonio M. Díaz Fernández. "The Basque Secret Service (1936-1945). International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 24, no. 3 (Fall 2011): 575-600.


Belasco, Amy. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 29 Mar. 2011. Available at:

"Between FY2009 and FY2010, average monthly DOD spending for Afghanistan grew from $4.4 billion to $6.7 billion a month,... while average troop strength almost doubled from 44,000 to 84,000 as part of the troop surge announced by the President last year. Troop strength in Afghanistan is expected to average 102,000 in FY2011. DOD's plans call for troop levels to fall by less than 4,000 in FY2012 unless the President decides otherwise.... It is currently unclear how quickly or slowly troop levels will fall this summer or in later years."

[MI/Ops/Afgh/10s; Terrorism/10s/Gen]

Belden, Thomas. "Indications, Warning, and Crisis Options." International Studies Quarterly 21, no. 1 (Mar. 1977): 181-198.


Belelieu, Andre. "Canada Alert: The Recent Evolution in Canadian Security Policy." Hemisphere Focus 12, no. 10 (2 Sep. 2004): 1-9.


Belknap, Michael. "Uncooperative Federalism: The Failure of the Bureau of Investigation's Intergovernmental Attack on Radicalism." Publius 12 (1982): 25-47.



Bellaby, Ross. "What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection." Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (Feb. 2012): 93-117.

This article seeks to establish "an ethical framework" that outlines "under what circumstances the use of different intelligence collection activities would be permissible."


Bellamy, Chris. Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War. New York: Knopf, 2007. New York: Vintage, 2008. [pb]

Pringle, Intelligencer 16.2 (Fall 2008), sees this as "the best one volume history of the war on the Eastern Front." The author "does an outstanding job of discussing the role of NKVD regiments and divisions, as well as less known destroyer battalions.... Bellamy [also] does a good job of putting nuclear espionage into context." However, the book "is too heavily concentrated on the first 18 months of the war."


Bellocchi, Like P. "Assessing the Effectiveness of the Economic Espionage Act of 1996." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 366-387.

"So far, the EEA has greatly improved the ability of the federal government to combat economic espionage by placing criminal sanctions on a sound legal foundation. The government has solidified that ability by using the law to successfully prosecute several defendants, while resolving numerous legal issues in their favor."


Belonus, Frank R. "The Evolution of Reconnaissance in the 21st Century." Armor 111 (Mar.-Apr. 2002): 20-24.


Belveal, Carolyn F. [1STLT/USA] "Training for the Future: Operations Other Than War." Military Intelligence 21, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1995): 20-22.


Bély, Lucien. Espions et ambassadeurs au temps ve Louis XIV. [Spies and Ambassadors in the Time of Louis XIV] Paris: Fayard, 1990. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]


Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1957.


Bemis, Samuel Flagg. "Secret Intelligence, 1777: Two Documents." Huntington Library Quarterly 24, no. 3 (1971): 233-248. [Petersen]


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