Becker, Abraham. "Intelligence Fiasco or Reasoned Accounting: CIA Estimates of Soviet GNP." Post-Soviet Affairs 10 (1994): 291-329.


Becker, Anja. "The Spy Who Couldn’t Possibly Be French: Espionage (and) Culture in France." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001). []

From abstract: "In France, espionage might be considered a negative myth, a reluctance to discuss the topic can be traced back ... to the Ancien Régime.... [A]fter the French Revolution, disdain for the spy-business developed into a predominant theme in society.... The negative French sentiments ... culminated in the Dreyfus affaire (1894-1906) which, in turn, did not result in an open discussion of intelligence.... Charles de Gaulle ... might be regarded an antithesis to the spy-enthusiast Winston Churchill.... Even after the end of the Cold War..., a pronounced reluctance to talk about intelligence persists. Contemporary authors of popular fiction ... keep a certain distance from espionage, their protagonists are either not French or carry names that are not French; a glorious French spy hero has yet to make his appearance."


Becker, Elizabeth. "Long History of Intercepting Key Words." New York Times, 24 Feb. 2000. []

"The Echelon system was developed in the 1970's. It links computers in at least seven sites around the world to receive, analyze and sort information captured from satellite communications, newly declassified information shows. The computers watch and listen for key words in telephone, fax and Internet communications and route intercepted messages on a topic requested by a country."


Becker, Elizabeth. "They're Unmanned, They Fly Low, and They Get the Picture." New York Times, 3 Jun. 1999. []

"[L]ight unmanned aerial vehicles known as drones are crisscrossing the skies over Kosovo, acting as electronic scouts, finding and filming elusive targets, especially Serbian troops hidden in bunkers or woods, and sending those images immediately to fighter jets overhead.... The United States Army Hunter surveillance plane flies from the Skopje [Macedonia] airfield. The more sophisticated unmanned Air Force Predator is based in Bosnia, at Tuzla, according to NATO and Pentagon officials."

[GenPostCW/90s/Kosovo; Recon/UAVs]

Becker, Elizabeth. "Pentagon Sets Up New Center for Waging Cyberwarfare." New York Times, 8 Oct. 1999. []

On 7 October 1999, JCS Chairman Gen. Henry Shelton announced the establishment of "a new center ... to defend the United States from hackers and to plot ways to attack an enemy's computer network.... The cyberwarfare center will take over what is now a scattered series of operations and will have headquarters in Colorado Springs under Gen. Richard Myers of the Air Force."


Becker, Eugene. "The National Cryptologic Museum Library." Studies in Intelligence 54, no. 3 (Sep. 2010): 23-26.

"[T]he museum and its library, with the support of the National Cryptologic Museum Foundation, is becoming a world center of historical intelligence research."

The museum's Website is at:


Becker, Howard. "The Nature and Consequences of Black Propaganda." American Sociological Review 14 (Apr. 1949): 221-235. [Petersen]


Becker, Joseph. "Comparative Survey of Soviet and US Access to Published Information." Studies in Intelligence 1, no. 4 (Fall 1957): 35-46.

"In general, US open source publications provide the Soviets with certain types of military intelligence and other valuable scientific and technical information, while Soviet publications provide the US with a reliable index to the over-all development of the Soviet system and a multiplicity of facts about its current status."


Becker, Louis, et al. Terrorism: Information as a Tool for Control. RS Report 78-1655 PR. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1978. [Petersen]


Return to B Table of Contents

Return to Alphabetical Table of Contents