Christopher Andrew

With Others

Andrew, Christopher, Richard J. Aldrich, and Wesley K. Wark. Secret Intelligence: A Reader. New York and London: Routledge, 2009.

Clark comment: The subtitle says exactly what this work is -- a Reader targeted at classroom use. There are 30 articles drawn from the writings of a number of scholars in the field of intelligence studies. Peake, Studies 53.3 (Sep. 2009) and Intelligencer 17.2 (Fall 2009), notes that whether you view this book "as a text or a source for stimulating thought on modern intelligence issues," it "is an important compendium and should be consulted by all concerned with the profession."

[Overviews/Gen/00s; RefMats/Teaching]

Andrew, Christopher, and Julie Elkner. "Stalin and Foreign Intelligence." In Redefining Stalinism, ed. Harold Shukman, 84-89. London: Frank Cass, 2003.


Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky. Comrade Kryuchkov's Instructions: Top Secret Files on KGB Foreign Operations, 1975-1985. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994. 1994. [pb]

Surveillant 3.4/5 says this is an updated edition of Andrew and Gordievskiy's Instructions from the Centre (1991). For Choice, Nov. 1994, Comrade Kryuchkov's Instructions is "an intriguing and useful documentary of Brezhnev-era KGB policies and activities.... [T]he editors have created a rather unique, firsthand account of the KGB's ends and means told via secret instructions and reports.... Brief commentaries weave together this treasure trove of documents.... This is an important sourcebook, but is no substitute for ... analytical efforts."


Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky. Instructions from The Centre: Top Secret Files from the KGB's Foreign Operations, 1975-85. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1991.

To Surveillant 2.2, this book is a "treasure-trove of original documents on KGB policies, plans, and techniques for the decade prior to Glasnost." Chambers agrees, commenting that the material is "worth reading," with "many insights into the KGB mindset. However, directive style is high bureaucratese."


Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky. KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990. New York: HarperCollins, 1990. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. [pb] JN6529I6A53

Chambers calls this work "compendious and well written; the place to start." According to Cram, "the majority of reviewers, especially the professional experts, lauded the book not only as a good read but also as an invaluable reference work." Powers, NYRB (11 May 2000) and Intelligence Wars (2004), 93, finds that Andrew has "seeded a comprehensive account of the KGB and its predecessors with nuggets of new material provided by Gordievsky." [fn. omitted]

For Clive, Government and Opposition 26.2, this is the "most authoritative history of the KGB and its predecessors." On the other hand, Evans, IJI&C 5.1, says this is a "well-written history..., [but] there are too many errors for KGB to be recommended without qualification." Accepting the work's imperfections, Howard, WPNWE, 24-30 Dec. 1990, argues that Andrew and Gordievsky's picture of the KGB is "likely to be more valuable for its outline than for its details."

Surveillant 2.1 sees KGB as an "[o]utstanding, scholarly, comprehensive, well-written, authoritative, narrative treatment of the history of Russian state security and intelligence services." It is a "commendable piece of work by a competent, disciplined historian with limited experience in the subject matter, and a former Soviet intelligence officer with limited first-hand knowledge of the subject." Although "numerous minor errors of fact crept in the hardback edition," many of these "have been cleared up in th[e] paperback edition." In addition, the "simple attribution of so much material to 'Gordievsky' without qualification of his sources raises some questions." This latter point is also made by Robertson, I&NS 7.3, who wonders whether "anything that might be termed research was undertaken at all" in the chapter on the Gorbachev Era.

Knightley, Spectator, 3 Nov. 1990, believes that the book clearly shows the mark of both co-authors. Andrew's "diligent research and narrative skill" are evident, but so is Gordievsky's background as "an ideological defector." The latter leads to "a smear" of Harry Hopkins "which can only be described as shameful." Because Andrew is "a conscientious academic,... we could have expected him to have inserted a few caveats into Gordievsky's story."

In a lengthy review essay in Atlantic, Mar. 1991, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., takes the book and its authors to task for the accusation against Harry Hopkins. He concludes that the story as presented is weakly sourced (a lecture heard by Gordievsky when he was a trainee), full of textual contradictions, and probably related to the authors' reputed six-figure advances.

Andrew, Christopher, and Vasili Mitrokhin.

Andrew, Christopher, and Keith Neilson. "Tsarist Codebreakers and British Codes." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986): 6-12.

See also, Korostovets, "The Black Cabinet," Contemporary Review 167.3 (1945): 162-165.


Andrew, Christopher, and Richard J. Aldrich, eds. "The Intelligence Services in the Second World War." Contemporary British History 13, no. 4 (1999): 130-169.


Andrew, Christopher, and David Dilks, eds. The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984. London: Macmillan, 1984.

Clark comment: This work brings together 11 wide-ranging scholarly essays on the role of intelligence in this century. As with most such works, it is necessary to strain to find a unifying theme; nevertheless, the self-contained nature of the individual essays allows the reader to pick and choose only those that may be of specific interest.

Bamford, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 41.9 (Oct. 1985), notes that while "the orientation of the chapters is decidedly British, there is nevertheless much information of interest to the American reader." Most of this work "is devoted to the early days of espionage, long before technical means became the dominant method of intelligence collection." A fresh look at British postwar cryptology and GCHQ "would have been far more useful" than a rehash on Philby, Blunt, and the others. Nonetheless, "the book makes an important contribution to a neglected area of history."


Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky, eds.

1. "Special Issue on More 'Instructions from The Centre': Top Secret Files on KGB Global Operations, 1975-1985." Intelligence and National Security 7, no. 1 (Jan. 1992): entire issue.

This is a "selection of the highly classified documents copied or photocopied by Oleg Gordievsky while serving as a PR line (political intelligence) officer in Copenhagen and London.... The commentary has been written by Christopher Andrew, based on joint analysis of the documents with Oleg Gordievsky." (Foreword)

2. More "Instructions from The Centre": Top Secret Files on KGB Global Operations, 1975-1985. London: Frank Cass, 1992.

This book was first published as a special issue of the journal Intelligence and National Security, vol 7, no. 1 (Jan. 1992) (see above).


Andrew, Christopher, and Jeremy Noakes, eds. Intelligence and International Relations, 1900-1945. Exeter, UK: Exeter University Publications, 1987.

Sexton notes that the title of this edited volume is somewhat misleading, since most of the essays deal with military operations and intelligence rather than international relations per se. Nonetheless, the essays "provide insight into the development of political and military intelligence since the turn of the century." For Watt, I&NS 3.2, this work marks "the emergence of a distinctive school of British writers into the field of intelligence studies."


Andrew, Christopher, and Simona Tobia, eds. Interrogation in War and Conflict: A Comparative and Interdisciplinary Analysis. London: Routledge, 2014.

Peake, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), comments that the 14 case studies in this edited volume expresse "a wide range of views on the use of torture during interrogation." However, the book "makes a strong historical case for minimum coercion during interrogation because it is more effective."


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