Christopher Andrew

G - Z

Andrew, Christopher. "Gordon Welchman, Sir Peter Marychurch and 'The Birth of Ultra.'" Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 2 (May. 1986): 277-280.

This article reproduces a letter from Marychurch to Welchman accusing the latter of endangering security in his discussion of Ultra's beginnings in The Hut Six Story (1982).


Andrew, Christopher. "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 1 (Apr. 1989): 213-256.

Clark comment: Andrew's judicious approach makes this article the best brief exposition of the development of Australian intelligence from World War I through the mid-1980s that this reader has seen. His conclusion that "[t]he Anglo-American connection is likely to remain a fundamental feature of Australian intelligence policy well into the twenty-first century" seems on the mark.

[Australia; Liaison][c]

Andrew, Christopher. Her Majesty's Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community. London: Heinemann, 1985. New York: Viking, 1985. JN329I6A53


Andrew, Christopher. "Historical Research on the British Intelligence Community." In Comparing Foreign Intelligence: The U.S., the USSR, the U.K. & the Third World, ed. Roy Godson, 43-64. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1988.


Andrew, Christopher. "Intelligence in the Cold War: Lessons and Learning." In Agents for Change: Intelligence Services in the 21st Century, ed. Harold Shukman, 1-22. London: St. Ermins, 2000.


Andrew, Christopher. "Intelligence Collaboration Between Britain and the United States During the Second World War." In The Intelligence Revolution: A History, ed. Walter T. Hitchcock, 111-121. Washington, DC: GPO, 1991.

Sexton notes that "Churchill is treated as the moving spirit behind the sharing of ULTRA with the United States, which became the basis for the postwar Sigint partnership of the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Australia and New Zealand."

[UK/WWII/Ultra; WWII/Magic/Cooperation]

Andrew, Christopher. "Intelligence and the Cold War: Intelligence and International Relations in the Early Cold War." Review of International Studies 24, no. 3 (1998): 321-330.


Andrew, Christopher. "Intelligence, International Relations and 'Under-theorisation.'" Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 170-184. And in Understanding Intelligence in the Twentieth-First Century, eds. Len V. Scott and Peter Jackson, 29-41. London: Routledge, 2004.

"[I]ntelligence is more deeply and visibly embedded in the conduct of international relations today ... than ever before in peacetime.... The vitual exclusion of SIGINT from the history of post-war international relations has distorted understanding of the Cold War in significant ways.... [T]he majority of those who use th[e] phrase [intelligence failure] seem to have no coherent idea of what it means."


Andrew, Christopher. "KGB Foreign Intelligence from Brezhnev to the Coup." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993): 52-67.

Even in the most successful periods of its operations, the quality of the KGB's "analysis did not equal that of its intelligence collection.... FCD reports suffered from a general tendency to tell the Party apparat what it wanted to hear." In addition, the FCD leadership had a "traditional predilection for conspiracy theory.... Paranoia ... is one of the oldest KGB traditions."


Andrew, Christopher. "KGB's Most Valuable Female Spy." Times (London), 11 Sep. 1999.

"New evidence identifies Mrs Norwood as the most important British female agent in KGB history and the longest-serving of all Soviet spies in Britain.... Mrs Norwood's file in the Centre records that throughout her career she was assessed as a 'committed, reliable and disciplined agent, striving to be of the utmost assistance.'"


Andrew, Christopher. "The Making of the Anglo-American SIGINT Alliance." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 95-109. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

[CIA/Liaison; WWII/Magic/Cooperation][c]

Andrew, Christopher. "The Mobilization of British Intelligence in the Two World Wars." In Mobilization for Total War: The Canadian, American and British Experience 1914-1918, 1939-1945, ed. N.F. Dreiszinger, 87-101. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfried Laurier University Press, 1981.

[UK/WWII/Overviews; WWI/UK]

Andrew, Christopher. "Russia's Revenge." Times (London), 15 Feb. 2001. [http://www.] Reprinted in Intelligencer 12, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 77-80.

The author argues that Russian support for the publication of Tomlinson's book is pay back for revelations in The Mitrokhin Archive.


Andrew, Christopher. "The VENONA Secret." In War, Resistance and Intelligence: Essays in Honour of M.R.D. Foot, ed. Kenneth G. Robertson. Barnsley, UK: Leo Cooper, 1999.


Andrew, Christopher. "Waging War Against the Dissidents." Times (London), 16 Sep. 1999. []

The SVR "proudly proclaims itself the heir to the KGB's foreign intelligence arm, the First Chief Directorate (FCD).... The SVR maintains that the FCD had nothing to do with the abuses of human rights perpetrated by the KGB's internal directorates. The top-secret files in the Mitrokhin Archive show that this claim is nonsense. The FCD was up to its neck in the war against the dissidents. It had no higher priority than crushing 'ideological subversion' wherever it raised its head."

[Russia/90s/99; UK/SpyCases/99/Fever]

Andrew, Christopher. "Whitehall, Washington and the Intelligence Services." International Affairs 53 (Jul. 1977): 390-404.

Petersen: "U.S. vs. U.K. attitudes on release of information on intelligence."

Andrew, Christopher, ed.

1. "Special Issue on Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986): Entire issue.

This was the inaugural issue of the Intelligence and National Security journal. Appropriately, given the inclinations of editor Christopher Andrew, the issue emphasized Sigint and associated activities. Click for a listing of the articles in this volume.

2. Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence. London: Frank Cass, 1986.

Reprints articles previously published in Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986).

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