Christopher Andrew

A - F

Andrew, Christopher. "American Presidents and Their Intelligence Communities." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1995): 95-112. "American Presidents and Their Intelligence Communities." In Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges, eds Roger Z. George and Robert D. Kline, 431-445. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

"Not until the Cold War did any of [George] Washington's successors rival his flair for intelligence." The relations between U.S. presidents and their intelligence communities have gone through three phases: The "Age of Innocence," which lasted until World War II; America's "Age of Transformation" began with the country's entry into World War II; and the "Age of Uncertainty," which in Andrew's judgment continues, began after Kennedy's assassination.

"Among postwar presidents, only three -- Eisenhower, Kennedy (briefly) and [George H.W.] Bush -- have shown a flair for intelligence." Presidents "often underestimated the value of the intelligence they received during the Cold War," and "frequently overestimated the secret power which covert action put at their command." Andrew predicts: "The presidents of the next century, like their Cold War predecessors, will continue to find an enormously expensive global intelligence system both fallible and indispensable."


Andrew, Christopher. "Anglo-American-Soviet Intelligence Relations." In The Rise and Fall of the Grand Alliance, 1941-45, eds. Ann J. Lane and Howard Temperley, 108-135. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1995.


Andrew, Christopher. "Arms for KGB's 'Irish Friends.'" Times (London), 15 Sep. 1999. []

The author,"drawing on the KGB intelligence files smuggled out by Vasili Mitrokhin, reveals how the Russians used national liberation movements to foment race war in the United States and also provided arms to Irish terrorists to cause mayhem in the United Kingdom."


Andrew, Christopher.

1. "Bletchley Park in Pre-War Perspective." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Michael Smith and Ralph Erskine, 1-14, 458-459. London: Bantam, 2001.

2. "Bletchley Park in Postwar Perspective." In Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer, eds. Michael Smith and Ralph Erskine, 431-440, 515-518. London: Bantam, 2001.


Andrew, Christopher. "British Intelligence and the Breach with Russia in 1927." Historical Journal 25 (1982): 957-964.


Andrew, Christopher. "The British Secret Service and Anglo-Soviet Relations in the 1920s. Part I: From the Trade Negotiations to the Zinoviev Letter." The Historical Journal 20 (Sep. 1977): 673-706.


Andrew, Christopher. "The British View of Security and Intelligence." In Security and Intelligence in a Changing World: New Perspectves for the 1990s, eds. A. Stuart Farson, David Stafford, and Wesley K. Wark. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1991.


Andrew, Christopher. "Casement and British Intelligence." In Roger Casement in Irish and World History, ed. Mary E. Daly, 74-87. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 2005.


Andrew, Christopher. "Codebreaking and Foreign Offices: The French, British and American Experience." In The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century, eds. Christopher Andrew and David Dilks, 33-53. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Petersen: "Good summary of U.S. Codebreaking 1919-1939."

[France/Interwar; UK/Overviews; Interwar/U.S.]

Andrew, Christopher. "Conclusion: An Agenda for Future Research." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 224-233.

Andrew, Christopher. "Churchill and Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul 1988): 181-193.

It was under Churchill's "inspirational leadership ... that the previously fragmented British intelligence services achieved at last that degree of co-ordination which turned them into an intelligence community. And it was Churchill also who was the moving force in making the Anglo-American intelligence alliance which has remained ever since the most special part of 'the special relationship."'


Andrew, Christopher. "Déchiffrement et diplomatie: Le cabinet noir sous la troisième république." [Decipherment and Diplomacy: The Black Chamber in the Third Republic] Relations internationales 5 (Spring 1976): 37-64. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]


Andrew, Christopher. The Defence of the Realm: The Authorised History of MI5. London: Allen Lane, 2009. Defend the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5. New York: Knopf, 2009.

Andrew, Christopher M. "F.H. Hinsley and the Cambridge Moles: Two Patterns of Intelligence Recruitment." In Diplomacy and Intelligence During the Second World War: Essays in Honour of F.H. Hinsley, ed. Richard Langhorne, 22-40. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985. 2003. [pb]


Andrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency From Washington to Bush. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Click for reviews of this important work.


Andrew, Christopher. "France and the German Menace." In Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment Before the Two World Wars, ed. Ernest R. May, 127-149. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.


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